PERFORMANCE: Human Factors



ASHRAE Indoor Air Quality Guide, The: Best Practices for Design, Construction and Commissioning


View, though subjective, deserves attention since it is a desirable characteristic in workplaces and is clearly influenced by window design and selection. Views through windows, especially those including elements from nature, contribute to the well-being of occupants as well as improve their sense of orientation and feeling of spaciousness. An occupant's view of the exterior depends on the distance from the window, visible transmittance of the glass, color of the glass, the fraction of window area not obstructed by permanent exterior shading devices (overhangs and fins), and the percentage time that interior shades do not obstruct the view.

Design Guidance from ASHRAE's Indoor Air Quality Guide
To ensure good views for most occupants:

  • Limit the maximum distance of workstations from the building exterior to 20 to 25 ft.
  • Separate the window into upper and lower portions, to independently control daylight, natural ventilation and view.
  • Use atria and outdoor courtyards to increase the variety and number of views.


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